3. Productivity is a common measure on how well resources are being used. In the broadest sense, it can be defined as the following ratio:
Productivity = Output/Input Or
Goods and services produced/All resources use
5. Order qualifiers are the basic criteria that permit the firms products to be considered as candidates for purchase by customers
Order winners are the criteria that differentiates the products and services of one firm from another
7. Bottleneck - Occurs when the limited capacity of a process causes work to pile up or become unevenly distributed in the flow of a process
– If an employee works too slow in a multi-stage process, work will begin to pile up in front of that employee. In this is case the employee represents the limited capacity causing the bottleneck.
8. Throughput time = Average time for a unit to move through the system
¬ Throughput rate = 1/Cycle time , where Cycle time = Average time between
completion of units
11. PARLE Factory has “ S FLOW LAYOUT ”
First of all the parle products buys RAW MATERIAL from the various suppliers and stored into the store room. This raw material is then sent to laboratory for testing and
after testing only it is used for manufacturing. The raw material consist of Wheat flour,
Sugar, Partially hydrogenated edible vegetable oils, Invert syrup, Leavening agents (503
Baking powder) Milk, solids Salt Emulsifiers (E 322 or E 471 or E 481) and Dough
conditioners (E 223).
Such a mixture of raw material is taken and mixed into STEPHAN MIXTURE, which is
high power mixture machine. Specially made for mixture of dough, from which the
mixture is passed to molder called ROTARY MOULDER. Through that moulder
approximately 10,000 come out in a minute. Moulder had 260 cups fitted in it which
gives shape to the biscuits and an impression embossed on it of parle-g.
From rotary moulder the dough is passed through a 260 feet long OVEN which is
approximately 340* c. In oven there are three stages to be followed
• Removal of moisture.
•Building the structure of biscuits.
•Colourings of biscuits take place.
From oven the hot biscuits are placed on the COOLING CONVYOR, which is 260 feetlong and the biscuits continues to run on it for 5 to 7 minutes so that the biscuits becomecool and all the moisture that biscuits contain gets evaporated. And because of the above reason the factory has “ S FLOW LAYOUT ” in the factory.
The conveyor continues to move to COUNTING UNIT where biscuits are counted and
seen that it is going on properly or not.
The conveyor continues till the biscuits reach the STALKING TABLE at which the
biscuits are packed in very orderly manner.
From cooling conveyor sum biscuits are diverted through AUTO FEEDING
MACHINE to another stalking machine where packing is done.
From stalking table the biscuits are moved on conveyor to MULTI PACK WRAPPING
MACHINE were 16 biscuits are packed into a regular parle g wrapper so that the weight
of 16 biscuits comes up to 100 grams.
Then 24 packets of parle g biscuits are packed into a POLY BAG
And after packing it into poly bag it is sent to SEALING MACHINE where it is sealed,
Then it is sent to CORRUGATE BOX SECTION in which 6 poly bags are placed and
Then the boxes are kept on conveyor and sent to DISPATCH SECTION from were the
biscuits are sent to various places in India and all over the world.