Sunday, July 17, 2011

TQM MIDSEM 2010

1. Zero defects – It means that company should stop expecting any defects from employee.


Zero Defects, pioneered by Philip Crosby,  aims to reduce and minimise the number of defects and errors in a process and to do things right the first time. 


The ultimate aim will be to reduce the level of defects to zero.  The overall effect of achieving zero defects is the maximisation of profitability.


More recently the concept of zero defects has lead to the creation and development of six sigma pioneered by Motorola and now adopted worldwide by many other organisations.


The concept of zero defects can be practically utilised in any situation to improve quality and reduce cost. 


Advantages of Zero Defects


Cost reduction caused by a decrease in waste. This waste could be both wasted materials and wasted time due to unnecessary rework
Cost reduction due to the fact that time is now being spent on only producing goods or services that are produced according to the requirements of consumers.
Building and delivering a finished article that conforms to consumer requirements at all times will result in increased customer satisfaction, improved customer retention and increased profitability.
Possible to measure the cost of quality


Disadvantages of Zero Defects
A process can be over engineered by an organisation in its efforts to create zero defects. Whilst endeavouring to create a situation of zero defects increasing time and expense may be spent in an attempt to build the perfect process that delivers the perfect finished product, which in reality may not be possible. 


2. Some of the TQM benefits are customer loyalty, cost savings, higher productivity, higher profitability, improved processes, improved employee morale and positive work environment.


3. Control charts  are statistical process control tools used to determine whether or not a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control.


4.A run chart is a graph that displays observed data in a time sequence. Often, the data displayed represent some aspect of the output or performance of a manufacturing or other business process.


5. The check sheet is a simple document that is used for collecting data in real-time and at the location where the data is generated. The document is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy, and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative 


7. Poka Yoke : Japanese term that means  "mistake-proofing". A poka-yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator avoid (yokeru) mistakes (poka). Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur.The concept was applied in  Toyota Production System.


8.Scatter Diagram ca be used to determine if there is correlation between two characteristics. Correlation implies that as one variable changes, the other also changes. Although this may indicate a cause and effect relationship, this is not always the case, since there may be a third characteristic (or many more) that are actually the cause, and both the characteristics of interest are the effect.


1. Cause and Effect diagram 


Example of Car Failure has been adopted..








2.What Is a Pareto Chart?


• Bar chart arranged in descending order of height from left to right
• Bars on left relatively more important than those on right
• Separates the "vital few" from the "trivial many" (Pareto Principle)


Why Use a Pareto Chart?


• Breaks big problem into smaller pieces
• Identifies most significant factors
• Shows where to focus efforts
• Allows better use of limited resources


4.  Deming's 14 points


1.Create constancy of purpose towards improvement of product and service , with  the aim to become  competitive , stay in business and provide jobs1 
2.Adopt the new philosophy .
3.Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality (defect prevention and continous improvement ) 
4.End the practise of awarding business on basis of price tag (suppliers)
5.Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service to improve quality ,thus constantly decrease cost
6.Institute training on jobs 
7.Institute leadership
8.Drive out fear so that everyone may work effectively for the company 
9.Break down barriers between departments 
10.eliminate slogans,exhortations and targets for the work force that ask for improvements without providing methods 
11.eliminate work standards ( numerical) on factory floor  and management by objective(number goals ).Substitute by leader ship 
12.Remove objectives that  rob  the pride of workmanship from a worker ( merit rating MOB )
13.Institute  a vigorous program of education and self improvement .
14.Take action to accomplish the transformation 




5. Quality Function Deployment ( QFD )


QFD is a scientific technique for translating the voice of the customer into development of  products and services. It is a complete product planning process as opposed to problem solving and analysis. The technique was invented by Akashi Fukuhara of Japan and first applied with very good results at Toyota.


Business is usually started because their founders recognize a customer need and believe that they can satisfy it better than other companies. At the time of fresh start, the product may be unique to the industry and have competitive advantages.


No matter how effectively a company meets the initial needs of the customers, it must remain constantly alert and responsive to the changing needs of the customers. Because if the company is not responsive to these changing needs, the passage of time will erode the early competitive advantages.




QFD - Customers Voice 


The whole process of the QFD can be linked to GIGO ( Garbage in garbage out ). This is because, if the voice of the customer has not been captured properly, the final product will also not be the one actually desired by the market place. It is therefore extremely important to capture the correct voice of the customer before taking any other step in the QFD planning process. We will explain this by the forthcoming example of new car development.




6. Crosby’s 14 steps to quality improvement

MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT - Top-level view on quality shown to all employees. 
THE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT TEAM - To pursue the quality regime throughout the business. 
QUALITY MEASUREMENT - Analysis of business quality performance in a meaningful manner, for example late deliveries, budgeted to actual sales/deliveries/costs/etc. Keep it simple for all to understand. 
THE COST OF QUALITY - Make sure everyone in the business understands the need for a quality system, and the costs to the business if there is no quality system in place. 
QUALITY AWARENESS - Make everyone in the business aware of the impact of quality systems. 
CORRECTIVE ACTION - Ensure a system is in place for analyzing defects in the system and applying simple cause and effect analysis, to prevent re-occurrence. 
ZERO DEFECTS PLANNING - Look for business activities to which zero defect logic should be applied. 
SUPERVISOR TRAINING - Get your supervisors trained in both quality logic and zero defect appreciation which they can apply to their business activities. 
ZERO DEFECTS DAY - A quality event by which all members of the effected section become aware that a change has taken place. 
GOAL SETTING - Once a change has been implemented in a section of the business, the next step is to get the employees and supervisors in that section to set goals for improvement to bring about continuous improvement. 
ERROR CAUSE REMOVAL - Communication process by which management are made aware that set goals are difficult to achieve in order for either the goals to be reset or help given by management to achieve the goals. 
RECOGNITION - Management must recognize the employees who participate in the quality schemes. 
QUALITY COUNCILS - Using both specialist knowledge and employee experiences to bring about a focused approach to business quality regime. 
DO IT OVER AGAIN - Continuous improvement means starting from the beginning again and again. 


Sources : 
http://wc1.smartdraw.com/examples/
http://www.qualityamerica.com/
wikipedia.org
http://www.managers-net.com/
http://www.saferpak.com/
http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk